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Joaquin Turina and the guitar  


It be not excessive to say that it there be for the guitarist a Turina "case". The membership of Joaquin Turina to this race - too sparse with my opinion - some musician already register some share in the History and who, not having scorn the guitar, have on the contrary write for it with a certain assiduity, must in theory ensure him a priori interest and respect. Moreover, Turina, with the difference of so much excellent composers in addition, "hears" the guitar. He is even the first to hear its open strings as Kodaly was the first to hear those of the violoncello. In the music of Turina there is adequacy between the style and the musical thought on one hand and the instrument on the other; there one comes very close to this famous balance, definition of authentic classicism. But, traditional, works of Turina for the guitar are it so much that, paradoxically some guitarists are diverted as one rejects sometimes his mother tongue with the profit of a more widespread idiom. Connect facilitated speech, assimilation of office and without another form of law suit to the legion of the innumerable espagnolade? There is not simply ignorance of the man, his style, its work? There are not too many people who confuse the three "Ta" : Turina, Torroba and Tarrega?


"Order and Joy"

Turina is born on December 9, 1882 in Seville. It is a stereotype of saying that "seldom a birthplace will have such a big significance in the work of a composer" [1] . However, the pianistic and musical formation that he receives there is well far from Andalusia. His first concerts show it : Thalberg, Weber, Beethoven, Schumann, Wagner... Because the German music is, with the Italian Opera, the only possible "and seizable music" in the provincial middle-class society of the end of the XIXth century: no Spanish music, neither old nor modern, and even Andalusian. The trace of Seville, if it exists, will be sealed rather in the very strong religious feeling which impregnates the personality of the composer : as the age of sixteen, he enters the "Brotherhood of "Jesus de la Pasi—n ", one of these typically sevillian "clubs" which travel in the streets in the Holy Week and for which he will later write some music. The force of this almost innate feeling will be found in the balance which will be the principal character of his life, his career and will be for a great part in his aesthetic choices [2] . Very early, Turina writes his first works under the total influence of Northern Europe (one finds there a Dance of the Elves and a Grande Polonaise) about the time when AlbŽniz begins his last period, that of the Cahiers of Iberia written in Paris. This Paris where, in 1905, Turina is admitted in Schola Cantorum, in particular in the class of composition of Vincent d' Indy. He improves his art in the rigorous manner proper to this one, acquires "the science and the talent required to be an excellent composer" [3] . And if he takes there certainly Latin accents, it is always in the same "noble" vein: no too conspicuous music in the temple of the good taste of the continuators of CŽsar Franck. He binds with Debussy, which will testify to him always much to regard (him which was enough aware of it), with Ravel and Florent Schmitt, which placed him in the center of the Parisian musical life between the "Debussystes" and the "d'Indystes". In spite of the richness and the authority of these influences, one needed an event in the life of Turina so that his style changes radically orientation and this event was the irruption of AlbŽniz, this AlbŽniz full with vital dash and which "had just invented" the Spanish music. Here what Turina himself tells us: "It happened that at the beginning of October 1907 was created at the Salon d'Automne of Paris my first work, a Quintet for piano and strings. Hardly installed on scene, the violinist Parent already holding up the bow , we saw entering at any speed and a little blown by his race, a corpulent with a large black beard and an immense hat with broad board. The next moment, in greatest silence, began the audition. A little later the corpulent Gentleman leaned towards his neighbor, a young lanky man and asked him:

Is the author an Englishman?

No, Sir, he is sevillan! answered the neighbor completely astonished. [4] '

  The work continued, after the Fugue came the Allegro and after the Andante, the Finale. Hardly the concert was finished that the corpulent Gentleman accompanied by his neighbor, the young lanky man, precipitated to the "foyer". It advanced towards me and with the greatest courtesy pronounced his name : Isaac AlbŽniz. A half - hour later, we walked all three arm above arm below on the Champs-ElysŽes, gray in this autumnal midday. After having crossed the place of Concorde, we settled in a brewery of the Royale street and there, in front of a goblet of Champagne and cakes, I undergone the more complete metamorphosis of my life. There, we evoked the "country"; there, we spoke about music from a "Western point of view" and from there, I left with all my ideas upset. We were three Spaniards, and in this coterie, in this corner of Paris, it fell to us to make great efforts for the national music and Spain. This scene, never I will forget it and I do not think that the young lanky man forgets it more, because he was not other than Manuel deFalla "(La Vanguardia, Barcelona, 1911).

This event truculent and moving seems to be the only one which had a decisive influence in the life of Turina; successes, honors and notoriety will reach him from now on without apparent effort. Since 1912, whereas it is thirty years old, which is very young for a composer, Parisian criticism greets his op. 3. "it should be on the piano of all those which are pricked to follow the contemporary musical movement". National Price of Composition for Canto a Sevilla in 1926, he is appointed five years later professor of composition to the Academy of Madrid. In 1940, just after the Civil war, event that Turina qualified "Glorious National Rising" - he is named Commissar to the Music (from Franckism to Francoism!)

Turina forms part of these artists who have only certainties where others have concerns: "Schšnberg is the apostle of insincerity through an unhealthy mental ability" he affirms. "The XXth century is prodigal of concern, neurosis, exalted polemics, final formulas which last one year as a maximum". That is what explains why his art did not vary during his life, did not follow the curve of evolution that one finds in the majority of the creators. "Why was it wanted that the external forms of its art vary?" answers Joaquin Rodrigo, "did his expressive impulse vary? It could not change because the dream invited it to the discipline and the discipline was driven and moved by the dream, and this balance needed constant fidelity to the expressive forms of his art ".

Turina, while speaking to us about his admiration for Ravel and Stravinsky, and about theoretical explorations of this last, gives us at the same time his philosophical opinion on the avant-garde: "the music, like all arts, tends to evolve, to fatally follow the stiff slope of the inaccessible. Any interruption in this way supposes a retrogradation compared to the continuous race of life, compared to the ceaseless progress of the human activities. But this painful walk, this extenuating projection must be slow, very slow. Art does not proceed by lifting impulses; a jump in darkness is always fatal ". [5]

  Such was Turina, conservative and monolithic but sincere and modest - the death of the one of his children for example, which has occurred in 1932 does not seem to leave traces in his production: the same year, he writes as carefree pieces as Garrotin y Soleares of his Homage to Tarrega op.69. All his life, his music will seem to run with abundance and facility thanks to his fabulous "mŽtier".

Nevertheless, reality is perhaps less simplistic and the frontage of the man and the musician less smooth". Turina acknowledges us that his facility is only apparent: it needs "... above all complete isolation and to proceed with an enormous slowness. The cerebral effort is so intense [... ] that it is impossible for me to support more than two working hours of composition each day. - the two hours produce a maximum of fourteen or fifteen measures that I frequently destroy the following day. It is necessary at every moment to control the work with the piano, measure by measure, chord by chord; to erase without pity all that is not completely well; never be in a hurry to finish. I can certify that each piece of music which is written is the result of a suffering " [6] .

  His friendship with Falla is extremely narrow. Almost contemporary and originating in the same geographical and cultural area, they meet in Madrid in 1905, are found in Paris two years later in the same Kléber hotel, close to the "Etoile". Their admiration is reciprocal. Falla dedicates its Four Spanish Pieces for piano to Turina : Ę

Manuel de Falla, gaditan,
With its higher consideration,
Dedicates this drivel
To Turina, sevillian (...)

They addressed as tu, which is rather rare at that time in SpainĘ [7] and are their mutual interpreters: Turina in particular, holds the part of piano at the final creation of the Amor Brujo in 1916 in Madrid and directs the creation of the first version of the Three Cornered Hat the following year.

This friendship will last all their life. Falla dies in 1946 and Turina on January 14, 1949 in Madrid.


The great adventure of Spanish music


Since the AlbŽnizian meeting - shock , Turina thus writes another music. A curious alloy of the severe Schola for the form and Andalusia for the bottom, - one would be tempted to say. But which Andalusia?

Because he must then revive his childhood and his adolescence full with musical images that his traditional formation had conscientiously evacuated and in which the guitar and the song are the protagonists impossible to circumvent. Curious destiny that of an Andalusian musician who must build "his" Andalusia in Paris! " [ I am ] a pure Sevillian which knew Seville only when he had left " he says us. And he adds: "This is mathematical, because it is as necessary for an artist to expatriate for knowing well his country, as for the painter moving back of some steps in order to embrace the totality of its picture". But it is precisely thanks to this physical distance and with the effort of memorizing, therefore of Recreation which it requires that real Spain will be able to metamorphose itself in this "interior Spain" without which there would be no Spanish art worthy of this name. Moreover, - did it not have initially to travel through the Russia of Glinka and of Rimsky-Korsakov and through the France of Debussy and to return from there purified, elutriated its provincialisms, for finally being able to open out and reach the status of the " Universal Andalusianism" of Falla, Turina (and Federico Garcia Lorca)? In all the work of Turina, one perceives an intense process of dramatic gestation to reconcile these two desires of andalousism and universality [8] .

. We are there in the very heart of the debate : what is more disproportionate, more irreconcilable than an art where all the men could recognize themselves and a small zone of the south of Spain, in one century when this late stagnates still as a whole in its cultural and artistic provincialism? The fear which haunts all the Spanish creators is that of the local color, of picturesque of which general public and a lot of intellectuals cannot get rid. Falla was the only one which tried to get rid of this label by giving up too conspicuous Andalusia for Castile of the Gold Century (El Retablo, the Concerto for Harpsichord, etc.). Turina paid his fidelity to the exhortations of AlbŽniz by shutting in in a kind of typical ghetto, colored, too familiar, and which makes screen with his purely musical qualities. All his work is victim of this myopia of the public; see for example the splendid sonata Sanlucar de Barrameda for piano, ignored in its feverish rigor and too often apprehended at the first degree only for its color.

Because if, by far, all these musics resembles themselves and appear copied on the folklore, a more subtle examination shows faults, shifts in which the art of the authentic creator can insert, even if the differences may seem unimportant to the profane. Important differences between Albéniz, Falla and Turina also come from the source to which they are inspired. It is necessary to distinguish in the labyrinth from the Andalusian folklore three roots which are, according to Turina himself

1) "Very old songs and autochtone dances

2) "Cante Jondo, clearly Gipsy, resulting from old the cańa, exorbitant, tragic, with complaints which resound like cries. Its extreme difficulty makes that currently, it is reduced to the seguiriya gitana.

3) "the soleares, granadinas.and rondeńas are halfway and their inflections and the ornaments of the falsetas of the guitar prove obviously that there are here Arab elements at the same time as Andalusian authentic formulas" [9]

These two last roots actually are extremely gotten mixed up, says usTurina, "as two trees planted so close one of the other that their branches intersect [10] .

Schematically, Falla proceeds rather of Cante Grande and of the Gipsy sensitivity ("he feels like the Gipsies and at the same time, he is a mystic" whereas Turina is carried, towards Cante Chico - which results from a hybridization - by his balanced temperament.

But it should well be seen that the quotation of topics of the folklore "in a pure state" is extremely rare in the music of Albéniz, Falla and Turina. What has interested these musicians in the Spanish guitar and the song, in addition to the national connotation, it is a certain direction of the release of the uses, constraints and rules into force everywhere in Europe and which were already felt like a yoke for creation. They see a means there of reaching "by modernity" their desire of universality, because exoticism fertilizes then the audacity and supports innovative attractions of avant - garde. Several of these "liberations", were defined by Falla in his writings; others, more or less unconscious, appear to us with the time: those of the rhythm, the melody, the timbre, the harmony, the scales and the form

The rythm  

It is especially the concept of rhythmic pedal (beloved by Messiaen) like those of Habaneras and Boleros (whose Ravel did remember), some on not very ordinary metres, in all cases for the "traditional" Western ears of that time. A typical pedal is that of Soleá with various rhythmic values:
Turina, Sevillana

The use of the rhythmic pedal uses to be of obsessing type and involves a a little hypnotic emotional state: Falla, in the Dance of Terror (Zambra), Pantomime (false Habanera at 7/8). Turina especially uses the hemiolic duality 2 + 2 + 2 = 3 + 3, punctually, as an enrichment of the rhythm of reference by the juxtaposition of the dual rhythm which opposes it and exacerbates it at the same time. In works for guitar, it is often within the same melody line; sometimes the graphic notation indicates it clearly (Soleares last page, Rafaga page 5 last range, Sonata page 10, last staff, etc.) but very often the hemiola is subjacent and is occulted by the apparent simplicity of the music; the Spanish music in general and that of Turina in particular swarm with such traps! With the piano, it is almost always in the opposition of the hands (Polo of Generalife from op. 55); one can also see an attempt in R‡faga at the "dolcissimo".

The melody

  Voluntary restriction of the ambitus of the melody (the sixth, maximum the seventh) and "incantatory" melisms around a note opposite to the German song and bel canto where the intervals felt like expressive and dramatic are, on the contrary, broad. The slow movement of Sonata op. 61 is a good example. Nevertheless, the micro - intervals of the Andalusian song are not integrated at that time, probably because of the instrumental problems. A typically guitaristic data is the frequent displacement of the melody center of interest : melody in the basses "with the thumb" and accompaniment in the acute register which fight effectively against the tyranny of the "soprano" like driver which reigns without division since at least Caccini.

The timbre

After Scarlatti and Padre Soler, the guitaristic rasgueado continues to fascinate the Spanish musicians for its extraordinary capacity of rhythmic and harmonic punctuation and also for it color [11] It is notable to see the fear and the mistrust of the traditional guitarists in his connection. This tradition however exists at least since Bermudo (1555) and opens out with the Baroque to fall then into the official oblivion from Carulli to Tarrega, if one excludes the folklorists like Arcas and Parga [12] .It will return to Turina, non - guitarist, the merit to be the first to integrate it in a work of erudite construction: the Sevillana op 29.


The writing by contrary movement was one of the fundamental pillars of the tonal writing. The writing in parallel intervals which is already in the air at this time, is already since a long time ago one of the typical features of the flamenco guitar. Turina will very often use it in all its work (less systematically however than Villa - Lobos) in the form of seventh, of ninth or more complex chords (cf Oracion del Torero), sometimes opposed to small counterpoints which enrich them (Fandanguillo op. 36, page; 4, ranges 4 and 5) The flamenco guitarist will also use freely of not prepared and unsolved dissonances, and of false relations that the Spanish School will assimilate with enthusiasm and greediness [13] ..



The mode of Andalusian E, Cuarto Tono of the baroque guitarists is a scale which can appear terribly banal to us but who at the moment when one feels in Europe breathlessness of the tonality, allured the Spanish musicians at least as much by his breaking load that by its indigenous color. It is maybe not useless to point out that this mode, which is not immutable, is written without key alterations, often admits G # and sometimes D #, but its true "leading note" is "at the underside" i.e. a half - tone above of the tonic.

exemple of Andalusian cadence
(Francisco Guerau, Poema Harmónico, Madrid, 1694)


This mode constitutes the Achilles' heel of the system: his easy employment and its abuse leads quickly to the espagnolade that Turina stigmatizes: "... it is not a sufficient condition, by employing the Andalusian cadenza, to give to the music the typical character and sensitivity "


It is the least innovations carrying point . Let us quote three original forms however :

the form diferencias of the Renaissance which remains a pilar of the flamenco guitar.

the free forms like Malaguena and Tarantas. Generally without measure. They have something of the Fantasia, non measured Prelude and the frescobaldian Toccata, but their interest resides in their improvisation look and the instrumental idiosyncrasy, which makes them not easily exploitable to the orchestra or even to the Piano.

the form Dance/Copla of the singer/Dance is the Spanish version of traditional Fast/Slow/Fast, but in which the Slow preserves elements of the Fast in particular the same dance character. This form with a long genealogy (Scarlatti) will be attended in the pieces of popular profile.

More generally, on the formal level, the abandonment of the tonal scale as unique reference scale is enough to upset many aspects of the laws of development and modulation: these ones are conditioned by the stability or the instability of the degrees and their fiercely hierarchical relations. To this dynamics will be added or substituted other dynamics, those of the modality, which tensions, quite different and placed on other degrees, will structure the musical discourse in an original way. One can see an example of "modal modulation" in Fandanguillo op 36 at the end of page 4. The third degree of the mode, here F, being by definition subject to constitutive chromatic deterioration's (see higher), is unstable. It can possibly behave then like a real leading note (descending!) and allow to modulate abruptly (but the ear will admit it "naturally") a tone higher (in E) with a remarkable saving in means.

It is understood that all this led at least to an easing of traditional forms. However, I would not like to make believe that the guitar and the flamenco song alone had been able to destabilize the Western traditions for several centuries into force. Of course, they were only the seed which fell on the ground already prepared by the Russians and Debussy inter alia. But the originality of what it is agreed to call the "true Spanish music" is not less but very strong because it comes from a completely new situation: it is the fruit of the meeting, of historical coincidence, between an old and folk music and a new and universal desire.

Even if Turina remained all his life faithful to the cyclic principles taught by d'Indy and if he draws from classified or popular forms, very quickly he employs it with safety and a freedom which will avoid to him the trap of the academism that Debussy at his beginnings of young composer had foreseen: "(...) Turina is strongly impregnated of popular music, he still hesitates in his developing and supposes useful to link with famous contemporary suppliers [ d'Indy! ]. Please believe well that J Turina can occur from them and listen to more familiar voices " [14] .

  This sense of freedom will be soon obvious in the concept of composition called "en r‡faga" (in gust), will be described by Garcia del Busto like typically turinian. They are short independent sequences, juxtaposed in "patchwork" like touches of pure color, and which take part of the famous " unity in diversity". It is possible to see there a misadventure inconscient or not of the old diferencia or, which is the same, from the falseta of the guitarists. This manner which seems the opposite of the development, is especially well adapted to the guitar - and of a terrible effectiveness in the piece that bears the title of its own form: Ráfaga op. 53.

A proof of the formal concerns of Turina - is found in the choice of the theme of his reception speech to the Academy : Architecture in the Music (Madrid, 1941). In the same way, one finds in Turina composition techniques sometimes surprising if one thinks that they are applied to apparently "improvised" pieces or in any case of "spontaneous" profile. It is the case of Sevillana op. 29, under - titrated Fantasia, which adopts the following rigorous symmetrical plan centered on the section "D":

Palo (Style)
"Soleà Malagueña"
Name of the mode


Turina always starts from very simple materials that it reuses in the development in order to classically give a greater feeling of unity to the listener:

1. The basic cell of the Tango (I). exposed out in BI is at once under "amplification" (II). It is then quoted twice in the Copla of Solea-Malagueña (III) in D by the process of "augmentation". In B2, the Tango is re-exposed and undergoes conversely "elimination" (cutback of the final part of a sentence or one musical period), traditional process of re-exposition for, says the author, "to make the work go on ".. [15]  


2. The Initial sentence of six measures (IV) in rasgueado, stated in A1 undergoes amplification in C (V) and equally elimination in A2.


Always in the same way, he reuses a small "banal" melismatic element (VI) (which appears in B1) to make with it, between B2 and A2, the starting point of a triumphal "bridge" of 27 measures (VII). This kind of peroration will be that much enhanced that it is the only disturbing element in the global symmetry of the piece. Let us announce that this small banal melismatic element (VII) is not taken randomly: it is itself derived from the basic cell (I)!


The Sonata for guitar, cyclic, has its two extreme movements built on the more minimal but very dynamic basic material,: the ascending fifth. By contrast, the second topic, traditionally expressive, as well as the second movement, employ embroideries or melisms around a sound which give on the contrary a static feeling. In the Andante one finds moreover also very marked jumps, but this time descendants, in order to constitute to some extent the "negative" of the basic idea.

Evoking the sonata form, Turina is perfectly conscious of the divorce which can exist between the rigid forms and the popular expression: "How to manage works of definite architecture? It is indeed, a difficult problem. It would seem that the ideas suitable with this kind of works are necessarily austere and noble so that they would be incompatible with the color and the naive expression of the popular song " [16] . Would be this a response to Schonberg? To the fierce Schonberg which acknowledged: "I also take pleasure to aim at the folklorists who claim to apply to the - by nature - primitive ideas of the popular music, a technique only suitable with a more advanced thought" [17] .

These types of theoretical concerns (but is the music another thing?) are always modestly dissimulated, in Turina, behind the instrumental flickering style of exoticism and impressionism, far from the austerity of the treaties. They are enough by themselves, apart from any consideration of personal taste, to distinguish him radically and objectively from the other Spanish authors who wrote, often abundantly, for the guitar. To conclude this paragraph on some concise formulas one will say that the style of Turina is made of " debussyst harmonic concepts, d'indyste counterpoint and reminiscences of Spanish music" or simply "impressionism, formalism, andalusism" or even more simply, if one wants to avoid the "isms": modernity, mŽtier and soil.



(published in the Cahiers de la guitare)



Some opinions on Joaquin Turina...


From Adolfo Salazar : Adolfo Salazar associates Turina and Granados in a poetic community, " an air of daydream, a twilight expression which makes them seek a soft pallet with the fine nuances..." in Isabelle Laspeyres, Turina in Paris, in RIMF n°26, June 1988.

From Gerardo Diego: "He produced much, too much. Frequently his pieces fall into formulas from his manner. Frequently he calls upon processes, with melodic, harmonic, rhythmic and syntactic materials appreciably similar." in Garcia del Busto, C$op cit.

From Regino Sainz de la Maza : "Turina is, maybe, that which best knew to use the Andalusian popular song, by subjecting it without violating it with the thematic development of the cyclic forms. He forged a clean harmonic language, of a great luminosity and its sentences have a rhythmic and melodic personality which one can confuse with no other. . " in Garcia del Busto, op cit.

From Tomas Marco: "a little studied phenomenon is that of the immense influence of the music of Turina on authors of his generation and posterior. Usually, it is Falla which is credited with this influence as if a more famous ascent were sought; but Falla hardly influenced the posterior Spanish music because the immense successes which were his works closed the doors instead of opening ways. All those which imitated him, fell in a way or another in the orbit of Turina and the even remote aftereffects of the nationalist musical period are impregnated of him." (in Garcia del Busto, C$op cit.)

From Joaquin Rodrigo: "' AlbŽniz becomes impatient and narrows; Falla is distressed and becomes sterile; Turina installs himself and languishes. What a overflow of imagination, efforts, genius, to apprehend the heart of our music from the point of view of this discrepancy (cultivated music European - Spanish primitive music ], in order to endow it with new facets universally valorized in the opposite camp! But is this not the cause of the narrow limitation of our music, the exiguous repertory of images which it brought? (...) The barbarian music has acquired know-how, has enriched its possibilities, has became art but it has sacrificed its freedom, falsified its essence, lost its naturalness." (Joaquin Rodrigo, Reception speech in Academia Real 1951.)



[1] José Luis Garcia Del Busto, Turina, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1981.

[2] One can attach this kind of personality to the concept of "great smooth Christian" developed by Doctor Pierre Solignac, the Christian Neurosis, De Trévise, Paris, 1976.

[3] Vincent d'Indy, Diplôme de fin d'études décerné a Joaquin Turina (1913).

[4] to understand the humor of Albeniz, it should be known that in Spain, the English - as today the Yankee for the Latin America - was the very type of "the foreigner" that is to say the most representative of "not - hispanity". It is Turina himself which ensured that in Seville "people called English all the tourists, were they Chinese."

[5] Turina, La Arquitectura en la musica, 1939.

[6] Turina, Como se hace una obra.  Conference given in Havana, 1929

[7] (7) Pujol and Llobet also originating in the same area, Catalonia, and both disciples of Tarrega, addressed themselves as vous.

[8] F. Sopeña, Joaquin Turina, Madrid, Editorial Nacional, 1943, P. 65.

[9] Turina, La Musica de Albéniz 1942

[10] Turina, La Musica española, 1929

[11] It is necessary to see in this fascination the origin of so many imitations of the guitar for the piano and for the orchestra, what I call sublimated guitars and sometimes "subliminal guitars" in Turina. But the example that I find most eloquent is the beginning of the Pantomime of Love The Magician. Falla entrusts to the piano, woods, brass and strings the role to imitate the rasgueado : crossing in all directions of melodic themes and arpeggios, all differents, to each instrument which are supposed by their profusion and their complex timbres to represent the richness of the sound phenomenon of the rasgueado, are actually reduced to a very simple E major chord , and prove with a certain humor that a guitar alone and in first position is equivalent to the work of good forty virtuosos! Anyway, this very theme will be quoted at the end of the Invocation and Danse by Joaquin Rodrigo.

[12] For Parga works, see the new editionChanterelle Verlag and also the article Juan Parga, the missing link

[13] It is probably to these characteristics of the flamenco guitar that Falla thought when he affirmed in a famous text that the guitar was well adapted to the modern music.

[14] CIaude Debussy, ln S.LM., IX, n " 12, 1913, Les Concerts, p. 42 -43.

[15] Turina, Como se hace una obra. 1929.

[16] Turina, Desenvolvimiento de la Musica Española, 1943.

[17] in Leibowitz, Schönberg, Seuil, 1969, p. 102.